Journal of Molecular Signaling | Full text | Membrane TNF-alpha-activated programmed necrosis is mediated by Ceramide-induced reactive oxygen species
Programmed necrosis is a form of caspase-independent cell death whose molecular regulation is poorly understood. While tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) has been identified as an activator of programmed necrosis, the specific context under which this can happen is unclear. Recently we reported that TNF-α can be expressed by human tumor cells as both a membrane tethered (mTNF-α) and a soluble (sTNF-α) form. Whereas low level, tumor-derived sTNF-α acts as a tumor promoter, tumor cell expression of mTNF-α significantly delays tumor growth in mice, in large part by induction of programmed necrosis of tumor associated myeloid cells. In this study we sought to determine the molecular mechanism involved in mTNF-α oxidative stress-induced cell death by evaluating the known pathways involved in TNF receptor-induced programmed necrosis.
Journal of Biomedical Science | Abstract | Reduced quality and accelerated follicle loss with female reproductive aging - does decline in theca dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) underlie the problem?
Infertility, spontaneous abortion and conception of trisomic offspring increase exponentially with age in mammals but in women there is an apparent acceleration in the rate from about age 37. The problems mostly commonly occur when the ovarian pool of follicles is depleted to a critical level with age but are also found in low follicular reserve of other etiologies. Since recent clinical studies have indicated that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation may reverse the problem of oocyte quality, this review of the literature was undertaken in an attempt to find an explanation of why this is effective?.In affected ovaries, oxygenation of follicular fluid is low, ultrastructural disturbances especially of mitochondria, occur in granulosa cells and oocytes, and considerable disturbances of meiosis occur. There is, however, no evidence to date that primordial follicles are compromised. In females with normal fertility, pre-antral ovarian theca cells respond to stimulation by inhibin B to provide androgen-based support for the developing follicle. With depletion of follicle numbers, inhibin B is reduced with consequent reduction in theca DHEA. Theca cells are the sole ovarian site of synthesis of DHEA, which is both a precursor of androstenedione and an essential ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), the key promoter of genes affecting fatty acid metabolism and fat transport and genes critical to mitochondrial function. As well as inducing a plethora of deleterious changes in follicular cytoplasmic structure and function, the omega 9 palmitate/oleate ratio is increased by lowered activity of PPARalpha. This provides conditions for increased ceramide synthesis and follicular loss through ceramide-induced apoptosis is accelerated.In humans critical theca DHEA synthesis occurs at about 70 days prior to ovulation thus effective supplementation needs to be undertaken about four months prior to intended conception; timing which is also suggested by successful interventions to date. In humans and primates that undergo adrenarche, the adrenal zona reticularis (ZR) is the major site of DHEA production, however this is also reduced with age. Concomitant loss in function of the ZR might account for the acceleration in the rate of aging seen in humans in the late thirties' age group.
Lipids in Health and Disease | Full text | Role of ceramide in diabetes mellitus: evidence and mechanisms
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease with multiple complications that causes serious diseases over the years. The condition leads to severe economic consequences and is reaching pandemic level globally. Much research is being carried out to address this disease and its underlying molecular mechanism. This review focuses on the diverse role and mechanism of ceramide, a prime sphingolipid signaling molecule, in the pathogenesis of type 1 and type 2 diabetes and its complications. Studies using cultured cells, animal models, and human subjects demonstrate that ceramide is a key player in the induction of β-cell apoptosis, insulin resistance, and reduction of insulin gene expression. Ceramide induces β-cell apoptosis by multiple mechanisms namely; activation of extrinsic apoptotic pathway, increasing cytochrome c release, free radical generation, induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress and inhibition of Akt. Ceramide also modulates many of the insulin signaling intermediates such as insulin receptor substrate, Akt, Glut-4, and it causes insulin resistance. Ceramide reduces the synthesis of insulin hormone by attenuation of insulin gene expression. Better understanding of this area will increase our understanding of the contribution of ceramide to the pathogenesis of diabetes, and further help in identifying potential therapeutic targets for the management of diabetes mellitus and its complications.
While you on earth..: Mario Badescu AHA & Ceramide Moisturizer
Hi all!Another product from Mario Badescu is here ^^Yes, another gift from Luxola and one of the staff from Luxola loves it so much and uses it every night. ❀
Details from mariobadescu.
P&FT | Full text | Carbon nanoparticles induce ceramide- and lipid raft-dependent signalling in lung epithelial cells: a target for a preventive strategy against environmentally-induced lung inflammation
Particulate air pollution in lung epithelial cells induces pathogenic endpoints like proliferation, apoptosis, and pro-inflammatory reactions. The activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a key event responsible for signalling events involving mitogen activated protein kinases specific for these endpoints. The molecular events leading to receptor activation however are not well understood. These events are relevant for the toxicological evaluation of inhalable particles as well as for potential preventive strategies in situations when particulate air pollution cannot be avoided. The current study therefore had the objective to elucidate membrane-coupled events leading to EGFR activation and the subsequent signalling cascade in lung epithelial cells. Furthermore, we aimed to identify the molecular target of ectoine, a biophysical active substance which we described to prevent carbon nanoparticle-induced lung inflammation.